What is HOSTILE ARCHITECTURE? What does HOSTILE ARCHITECTURE mean? HOSTILE ARCHITECTURE meaning - HOSTILE ARCHITECTURE definition - HOSTILE ARCHITECTURE explanation.
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Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.
Hostile architecture is a controversial urban design trend in which public spaces are constructed or altered to discourage people from using them in a way not intended by the owner. Also known as defensive architecture, hostile design, unpleasant design, or defensive urban design it is most typically associated with aggression against the homeless in the form of "anti-homeless spikes" — studs embedded in flat surfaces to make sleeping rough uncomfortable and impractical. Hostile architecture often targets the city's most vulnerable, both intentionally through anti-loitering and anti-skateboarding measures and uninten...